afbjorklund / fedora-lima

Create a fedora based image for lima

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Fedora Lima

See https://github.com/lima-vm/lima

Requires Lima version 0.8.0 or later

lime fedora

Background

Podman is a Linux-only program, that creates Linux containers/images.

Therefore it needs to create a Linux virtual machine (VM), on other OS.

Podman v3 will by default create virtual machines using Fedora CoreOS.

But it is also possible to create virtual machines using Fedora Cloud...

History

This can still be done "manually", and podman installed using dnf.

Podman version 1 (varlink) created virtual machines using Fedora Linux.

Doing an ISO would require writing a custom "kickstart" file, for Lima.

It would be a "live" image, similar to alpine-lima. See the fedora-live files.

Usage

Run limactl start fedora-podman.yaml to create a Lima instance named "fedora-podman".

To open a shell, run limactl shell fedora-podman bash or LIMA_INSTANCE=fedora-podman lima.

user

limactl shell fedora-podman podman

$ export LIMA_INSTANCE=fedora-podman
$ lima podman version
Version:      3.4.0
API Version:  3.4.0
Go Version:   go1.16.8
Built:        Thu Sep 30 19:40:21 2021
OS/Arch:      linux/amd64
$ lima podman info | grep rootless
    rootless: true

The remote socket is listening as well, if needed:

$ lima systemctl --user status podman.socket
...
$ lima podman --remote version
Client:
Version:      3.4.0
API Version:  3.4.0
Go Version:   go1.16.8
Built:        Thu Sep 30 19:40:21 2021
OS/Arch:      linux/amd64

Server:
Version:      3.4.0
API Version:  3.4.0
Go Version:   go1.16.8
Built:        Thu Sep 30 19:40:21 2021
OS/Arch:      linux/amd64
$ lima podman --remote info | grep -A2 remoteSocket
  remoteSocket:
    exists: true
    path: /run/user/1000/podman/podman.sock

system

limactl shell fedora-podman sudo podman

$ export LIMA_INSTANCE=fedora-podman
$ lima sudo podman version
Version:      3.4.0
API Version:  3.4.0
Go Version:   go1.16.8
Built:        Thu Sep 30 19:40:21 2021
OS/Arch:      linux/amd64
$ lima sudo podman info | grep rootless
    rootless: false

The remote socket is listening as well, if needed:

$ lima sudo systemctl --system status podman.socket
...
$ lima sudo podman --remote version
Client:
Version:      3.4.0
API Version:  3.4.0
Go Version:   go1.16.8
Built:        Thu Sep 30 19:40:21 2021
OS/Arch:      linux/amd64

Server:
Version:      3.4.0
API Version:  3.4.0
Go Version:   go1.16.8
Built:        Thu Sep 30 19:40:21 2021
OS/Arch:      linux/amd64
$ lima sudo podman --remote info | grep -A2 remoteSocket
  remoteSocket:
    exists: true
    path: /run/podman/podman.sock

Socket

The new version of lima automatically sets up unix sockets.

So you can connect directly to the VM, by setting a variable:

export CONTAINER_HOST=unix://$DIR/sock/podman.sock

And lima will make sure to tunnel this to the VM, using SSH.

You can use limactl list, to see the instance directory.

Normally it is located in a subdirectory, under ~/.lima.

Root

By default, podman will use user unless switching socket:

export CONTAINER_HOST=unix:/run/podman/podman.sock

But the system service requires root, for instance sudo.

Error: unable to connect to Podman socket: Get "http://d/v3.4.0/libpod/_ping": dial unix /run/podman/podman.sock: connect: permission denied

Alternatively, one can use a root-equivalent group: (#6809)

groupadd -f -r podman

    mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/podman.socket.d
    cat >/etc/systemd/system/podman.socket.d/override.conf <<EOF
[Socket]
SocketMode=0660
SocketUser=root
SocketGroup=podman
EOF
    systemctl daemon-reload
    echo "d /run/podman 0770 root podman" > /etc/tmpfiles.d/podman.conf
    systemd-tmpfiles --create
    systemctl restart podman.socket

usermod -aG podman $SUDO_USER

This is very similar to the "docker" group for docker.

WARNING
The podman group grants privileges equivalent to the root user.

Connections

To view the information about lima instances:

$ limactl list
NAME             STATUS     SSH                ARCH      DIR
fedora-podman    Running    127.0.0.1:45007    x86_64    /home/anders/.lima/fedora-podman

Then, to add a user connection: (as default)

podman system connection add --identity ~/.lima/_config/user --default lima ssh://127.0.0.1:45007

Or, to add a system connection: (requires root)

podman system connection add --identity ~/.lima/_config/user lima-root ssh://127.0.0.1:45007/run/podman/podman.sock

Now there are two different podman connections:

$ podman system connection list
Name        Identity                         URI
lima*       /home/anders/.lima/_config/user  ssh://anders@127.0.0.1:45007/run/user/1000/podman/podman.sock
lima-root   /home/anders/.lima/_config/user  ssh://anders@127.0.0.1:45007/run/podman/podman.sock

That can be used with the podman-remote client:

podman --remote --connection lima

CONTAINER_CONNECTION=lima-root podman-remote

Packages

Lima starts with a Fedora Cloud .qcow2 installation.

%packages --instLangs=en
@^cloud-server-environment
-kernel
kernel-core
-dracut-config-rescue
-plymouth
qemu-guest-agent
-firewalld
-geolite2-country
-geolite2-city
%end
  <environment>
    <id>cloud-server-environment</id>
    <_name>Fedora Cloud Server</_name>
    <_description>A server install with components needed to run in a cloud environment.</_description>
    <grouplist>
      <groupid>cloud-bootloader-tools</groupid>
      <groupid>cloud-server</groupid>
      <groupid>core</groupid>
    </grouplist>
    <optionlist>
      ...
    </optionlist>
  </environment>

Then it adds the following RPMS, through cloud-init:

  • fuse-sshfs

  • iptables

Processes

systemd─┬─NetworkManager───2*[{NetworkManager}]
        ├─2*[agetty]
        ├─auditd───{auditd}
        ├─chronyd
        ├─dbus-broker-lau───dbus-broker
        ├─lima-guestagent───4*[{lima-guestagent}]
        ├─sshd───sshd───sshd─┬─bash───pstree
        │                    └─2*[sshfs───3*[{sshfs}]]
        ├─sssd─┬─sssd_be
        │      └─sssd_nss
        ├─systemd───(sd-pam)
        ├─systemd-homed
        ├─systemd-hostnam
        ├─systemd-journal
        ├─systemd-logind
        ├─systemd-oomd
        ├─systemd-resolve
        ├─systemd-udevd
        └─systemd-userdbd───3*[systemd-userwor]

CentOS

CentOS Stream freezes an older version of Fedora.

It will eventually become Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Except for the image URLs, it is same:

limactl start centos-podman.yaml

Fedora CentOS
fc28 el8
fc34 el9

Rawhide

Rawhide is the development version of Fedora.

It is "rollin', rollin', rollin", before Fedora releases.

Except for the image URLs, it is same:

limactl start rawhide-podman.yaml

Comparison

docker

See https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/fedora/

limactl start fedora-docker.yaml

limactl shell fedora-docker docker

limactl shell fedora-docker sudo docker

nerdctl

nerdctl is a client for containerd and buildkitd

limactl start fedora-nerdctl.yaml

limactl shell fedora-nerdctl nerdctl

limactl shell fedora-nerdctl sudo nerdctl

kubernetes

limactl --debug start fedora-kubernetes.yaml

limactl shell fedora-kubernetes sudo kubectl

nomad

limactl --debug start fedora-nomad.yaml

limactl shell fedora-nomad nomad

Examples

lima default:

examples/ubuntu.yaml (the default) runs containerd with ubuntu

examples/fedora.yaml runs containerd (not podman) with fedora

"The goal of Lima is to promote containerd including nerdctl to Mac users"

Container engines:

examples/docker.yaml runs docker (not podman) with ubuntu (not fedora)

examples/podman.yaml runs podman with ubuntu (not fedora)

Container orchestration:

examples/k8s.yaml runs kubernetes by using containerd with ubuntu

examples/nomad.yaml runs nomad by using containerd with ubuntu

So we learn that:

  1. containerd is the (new) standard container runtime

  2. ubuntu is (still) the standard cloud linux distribution

Or something. 😉

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Create a fedora based image for lima